- Gorshkov V.G., Sherman S.G., Kondratyev K.Ya. (1990) The global carbon cycle change: Le Chatelier principle in the response of biota to changing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Il Nuovo Cimento C, 13(5), 801-816.
The long-term existence of natural biota in the environment means that such a system is stable with respect to external disturbances. This system must follow the Le Chatelier principle which is based on the processes that compensate the disturbing effects. The use of the Le Chatelier principle makes it possible to choose between contradictory observational data. Available observational data on variations of the concentration of rare carbon isotopes in various media show that the oceanic biota follows the Le Chatelier principle and absorbs about half the carbon which the ocean gets from the atmosphere, compensating an increment of carbon in the atmosphere caused by an anthropogenic impact. The strongly anthropogenically disturbed land biota does not follow the Le Chatelier principle, starting from the middle of this century. The land biota not only cannot absorb excess carbon accumulated in the atmosphere: it ejects carbon to the atmosphere in quantities equal to halved emission of carbon through fossil fuel burning. All the quantitative results considered in the paper have been obtained without using models of the biota and of the ocean.
- Горшков В.Г., Шерман С.Г., Кондратьев К.Я. (1990) Изменение глобального круговорота углерода: принцип Ле Шателье реакции биоты на изменение атмосферной концентрации CO2. Il Nuovo Cimento C, 13(5), 801-816. [на англ. яз.]