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Biotic Regulation of the Environment: Key Issue of Global Change.
V. G. Gorshkov, V. V. Gorshkov, A. M. Makarieva. 2000. Springer-Praxis Series in Environmental Sciences, 367 pp. Praxis: Chichester, Springer: Berlin.

Biotic Regulation of the Environment: Key Issue of Global Change

HTML version of the first chapter is available here.

  • Contents and Preface
  • Chapter 1. General overview
    • 1.1. External environment and internal milieu
    • 1.2. Adaptation to, or regulation of, the environment?
    • 1.3. Major inconsistencies in the genetic adaptation paradigm
    • 1.4. Discreteness and stability of biological species
    • 1.5. Global environment formed by the natural biota
    • 1.6. Biotic regulation of the environment
    • 1.7. Concepts of genetic adaptation and biotic regulation are mutually exclusive
    • 1.8. Empirical evidence for the biotic regulation of the environment
    • 1.9. Stability of life organisation
    • 1.10. Mechanism of biotic regulation
    • 1.11. Natural distribution of energy consumption over individuals of different body size
    • 1.12. Conserving biodiversity or biotic regulation?
    • 1.13. Biotic regulation cannot be replaced by technology
    • 1.14. Ecological problems of humankind
    • 1.15. Demography
  • Chapter 2. What is life?
    • 2.1. Distinctive properties of life
    • 2.2. Physical and biological stability
    • 2.3. Sexual dimorphism
    • 2.4. Competitiveness and organisation of life
    • 2.5. Altruistic interaction of individuals
    • 2.6. Notorious group selection
    • 2.7. The basic principle of biology
    • 2.8. Impossibility of globally correlated living objects
    • 2.9. Norm and defect
    • 2.10. The quantum nature of life
    • 2.11. Ecological community as the highest level of biological organisation
  • Chapter 3. Ecology of organisms with different body sizes
    • 3.1. Metabolic power of individuals
    • 3.2. Body size limits
    • 3.3. Energetics and body size of photosynthesising plants
    • 3.4. Sensitivity of the biota
    • 3.5. Fluctuations of synthesis and destruction of organic matter
    • 3.6. Immobile and locomotive organisms
    • 3.7. Distribution of consumption by heterotrophs with respect to their body size
    • 3.8. Distribution of biomass of heterotrophs with respect to their body size
  • Chapter 4. Ecology of locomotive animals
    • 4.1. Daily average travelling distance
    • 4.2. The maximum speed of movement for animals
    • 4.3. Maximum permissible share of biomass consumption by locomotive animals
    • 4.4. Settled and nomadic lifestyle of locomotive animals
    • 4.5. Carnivores
    • 4.6. Diffusion of excreta
    • 4.7. Conclusions
  • Chapter 5. Ecological principles of biotic regulation
    • 5.1. Ecological limitations on expansion of species
    • 5.2. Biotic and inorganic fluxes of matter in the biosphere
    • 5.3. Evolutionary progress and environmental degradation
    • 5.4. Matter cycles in the biosphere
    • 5.5. Environmental homeostasis and the biotic interpretation of the Le Chatelier principle
    • 5.6. Biotic regulation of matter cycles
    • 5.7. Limiting biogens. Resources: renewable and non-renewable
    • 5.8. Immigration in the ecological community
  • Chapter 6. Biotic regulation in action
    • 6.1. The biological pump of atmospheric carbon
    • 6.2. Changing production of dissolved organic matter in the ocean
    • 6.3. Global carbon cycle change
    • 6.4. Historical dynamics of the global change
    • 6.5. Stopping the global carbon change
    • 6.6. The water cycle
    • 6.7. Forest succession: recovery of forest communities after perturbations
    • 6.8. Forest succession: analysis of empirical evidence
      • 6.8.1. Formation of the environment by forest communities
      • 6.8.2. Recovery dynamics
      • 6.8.3. Fires, windfalls, insect invasions: natural periodicity
      • 6.8.4. The climate issue
      • 6.8.5. Current state of forest communities
  • Chapter 7. Energy and information
    • 7.1. Order and decay
    • 7.2. Solar energy
    • 7.3. Stores and fluxes of information in natural biota and civilisation
    • 7.4. Ecological information of large animals
  • Chapter 8. Unique nature of climate stability on Earth
    • 8.1. Major climatic characteristics of Earth
    • 8.2. Spectral characteristics of thermal radiation
    • 8.3. Traditional estimates of the contributions from different greenhouse gases to the greenhouse effect
    • 8.4. Dependence of the greenhouse effect on concentrations of the greenhouse gases
    • 8.5. Possible Earth's climates and their stability
    • 8.6. Physical stability of the Earth's climate
    • 8.7. Biotic stability of the modern climate of Earth
  • Chapter 9. Genetic bases of biotic regulation and life stability: Theoretical consideration
    • 9.1. Organisation of genetic information of species
    • 9.2. Population in the absence of stabilising selection
    • 9.3. Stabilisation of genetic information of species
    • 9.4. Sensitivity of competitive interaction
    • 9.5. Normal genotypes and the normal genome
    • 9.6. Normal, decay and adaptive polymorphism in a population
    • 9.7. Stability of biological species under natural conditions
    • 9.8. Stability of biological species under unnatural conditions
    • 9.9. Biological species: definition
  • Chapter 10. Genetic bases of biotic regulation and life stability: Analysis of empirical evidence
    • 10.1. Genetic recombination
    • 10.2. Sexual dimorphism and regulation of birth rate of decay individuals
    • 10.3. Haploidy and diploidy
    • 10.4. Effective haploidy: autosomal heterozygosity and sex hemizygosity
    • 10.5. Threshold heterozygosity values and Haldane's rule
    • 10.6. Estimates of lethal and hybrid heterozygosities
    • 10.7. Brief account of different views on the nature of intraspecific variability
    • 10.8. Poisson distribution of the number of polymorphic loci
    • 10.9. Natural level of heterozygosity in mammals
    • 10.10. Heterozygosity dependence of body mass and genome size
  • Chapter 11. Evolution
    • 11.1 Evolution and environmental change
    • 11.2 Origin of new species
    • 11.3 Evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    • 11.4 Uniformity of evolutionary tempo in different biological taxa
    • 11.5. Conclusions
  • Chapter 12. Conclusions: Can the biosphere be treated as a resource?
  • References and Index

Physical and Biological Bases of Life Stability

Physical and Biological Bases of Life Stability. Man. Biota. Environment.
V. G. Gorshkov. 1995. Springer: Berlin.

  • Preface and Contents
  • Chapter 1. Ecological Stability
    • 1.1. Introduction
    • 1.2. Biological Regulation of the Environment
    • 1.3. Means of Biological Regulation of the Environment
    • 1.4. The Action of the Le Chatelier Principle in the Biosphere
    • 1.5. Violations of the Le Chatelier Principle in the Contemporary Biosphere
    • 1.6. Biosphere as a "Free Market"
    • 1.7. Biospheric Communities
    • 1.8. Evolution Rates
    • 1.9. Progress
    • 1.10. Conservation of the Biosphere
    • 1.11. A Transition to the Noosphere?
  • Chapter 2. Solar Energy and Ordered Processes in Inanimate Nature
    • 2.1. Decay of Ordered States
    • 2.2. Solar Energy
    • 2.3. The Physical States of Dynamic Equilibrium
    • 2.4. The Stability of Physical States
    • 2.5. Physical Self-Organization
    • 2.6. The Measurable Variables: Dimensions and Mutual Correlations
    • 2.7. Thermal Stability of Climate
    • 2.8. Correlation Distances and Information
  • Chapter 3. Stability of Life Organization
    • 3.1. Biological Stability
    • 3.2. Differences Between Biological and Physical Stability
    • 3.3. The Quantum Nature of Life
    • 3.4. The Nature of Genome Decay
    • 3.5. Population: a Stationary State
    • 3.6. Normal Genotypes and the Normal Genome
    • 3.7. Neutral Mutations
    • 3.8. Normal, Decay, and Adaptive Polymorphism in a Population Stability of the Biological Species
    • 3.9. Stability of the Biological Species
    • 3.10. Genetic Recombinations
    • 3.11. Sexual Dimorphism and Regulation of Birth Rate of Decay Individuals
    • 3.12. Diploid and Polyploid Genomes
    • 3.13. Heterozygosity
    • 3.14. Stability of the Diploid Genome
    • 3.15. The Evolution of Species
    • 3.16. Evolution of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
    • 3.17. The Rate of Evolution
    • 3.18. Is There Extraterrestrial Life in the Universe?
    • 3.19. Biological Stability and Neo-Darwmism
  • Chapter 4. Stability of the Biosphere's Organization
    • 4.1. Limitations to Expansion and Evolution of Species
    • 4.2. Closed Matter Cycles in the Biosphere
    • 4.3. Biological Cycles
    • 4.4. The Le Chatelier Principle in Natural Biota
    • 4.5. Biospheric Communities
    • 4.6. Biological Regulation of Matter Cycles
    • 4.7. Biological Stability and Limiting Nutrients
    • 4.8. Productivity and Immigration in the Community
    • 4.9. The Biological Pump of Atmospheric Carbon
    • 4.10. Atmospheric Concentration of CO2 and New Production by the Ocean
    • 4.11. Changing Production of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Ocean
    • 4.12. Changes in the Global Cycle of Carbon
    • 4.13. The Water Cycle
    • 4.14. Competitively Interacting Communities and the Gaia Hypothesis
  • Chapter 5. The Energetics of Biota
    • 5.1. Metabolic Power of the Individual
    • 5.2. Body Size Limits
    • 5.3. Energetics and Body Size of Photosynthesizing Plants
    • 5.4. Fluctuations in Synthesis and Destruction of Organic Matter
    • 5.5. Immotile and Locomotive Organisms
    • 5.6. Distribution of Consumption by Heterotrophs According to Their Body Size
    • 5.7. Daily Average Travelling Distance
    • 5.8. The Maximum Speed of Movement for Animals
    • 5.9. Maximum Permissible Share of Biomass Consumed by Mobile Animals
    • 5.10. Settled and Nomadic Lifestyles for Locomotive Animals
    • 5.11. Carnivores
    • 5.12. Diffusion of Excreta
    • 5.13. Detailed Distribution of Destructiveness with Body Size
    • 5.14. Brief Conclusions
  • Chapter 6. The Ecology of Man
    • 6.1. Behavioral Strategy of Mobile Animals
    • 6.2. Herd Animals
    • 6.3. Territorial Animals
    • 6.4. Genetic and Cultural Heritage
    • 6.5. The Ecological Niches of Man
    • 6.6. Climatological, Biological, and Ecological Limits of Energy Consumption by Man
    • 6.7. Science and Religion
  • Conclusion
  • Appendices
    • Appendix A. Details of Calculations in Sect. 4.11
    • Appendix B. Details of Calculations in Sect. 4.12
    • Appendix C. Details of Calculations of the Results in Fig. 6.2
    • Appendix D. List of Frequently Used Symbols
  • Bibliography and Subject Index

BOOKS IN RUSSIAN (click here for Russian texts):

Energetics of the Biospere and Stability of the Environmental State.
V. G. Gorshkov. 1990. Achievements of Science and Technology, Series Theoretical and General Problems of Geography, Volume 7, 238 pp. VINITI: Moscow.

Ecology of Man.
V. G. Gorshkov. 1984. Leningrad Polytechnical Institute: Leningrad. 70 pp.

Energetics of the Biospere.
V. G. Gorshkov. 1982. Leningrad Polytechnical Institute: Leningrad. 79 pp.