Question No. 20

How can one explain the existence of emperor penguins in the Antarctics, if there is no adaptation but biotic regulation only? The Antarctics does not need penguins, it is obvious. But does the ocean need them? Also doubtful.
Answered 6 March 2008.
Question author: I. Reif.
Asked 13 January 2007.

This question was answered in Russian, no English translation has been done so far. You can read the Russian text here. A similar question could be asked about migratory birds and, more generally, about all locomotive animals. It was asked by Prof. Valery Gavrilov in the discussion of the biotic pump paper in Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. The question of Prof. Gavrilov and our response to it could be read here.